Data Privacy Over Internet and Need for Encryption By Devashish Bharti

Dear Readers,

Internet Privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via of the Internet.

Is Internet Privacy A Human Right?

  • Privacy has already had numerous “obituaries” written over the years. Some claim that privacy was dead long ago with the advent of the internet and social media. The threat of terrorism has compounded the erosion of privacy as successive governments slowly roll back laws to collect and protect data and communications online.
  • We now live in a world where phone calls are closely monitored, security cameras record every move, and internet giants offer a backdoor to our personal data to the highest bidder and most relevant authority.
  • The United Nations Human Rights Council, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a number of national and international treaties, and the constitutions of various countries enshrine ‘privacy’ as a fundamental human right.
  • Recently, In an April 2014 decision by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) declared that the European Data Retention Directive was a gross violation of privacy rights under European law and, therefore, was invalid.

Types of Privacy

There are two types of privacy of data based on data availability i.e., Online privacy and Offline privacy but both are same in terms of privacy protection.

Risks to Internet privacy

  • Companies are hired to watch what internet sites people visit, and then use the information, for instance by sending advertising based on one's browsing history. There are many ways in which people can divulge their personal information, for instance by use of "social media" and by sending bank and credit card information to various websites.

  • Moreover, directly observed behaviour, such as browsing logs, search queries, or contents of the Facebook profile can be automatically processed to infer potentially more intrusive details about an individual, such as sexual orientation, political and religious views, preferences, substance use, intelligence, and personality.

  • Several social networking sites try to protect the personal information of their subscribers. On Facebook, for example, privacy settings are available to all registered users: they can block certain individuals from seeing their profile, they can choose their "friends", and they can limit who has access to one's pictures and videos. Privacy settings are also available on other social networking sites such as Google Plus and Twitter.

  • Children and adolescents often use the Internet (including social media) in ways which risk their privacy: a cause for growing concern among parents.

  • Young people also may not realise that all their information and browsing can and may be tracked while visiting a particular site and that it is up to them to protect their own privacy. They must be informed about all these risks.

  • For example, on Twitter, threats include shortened links that lead one to potentially harmful places. In their email inbox, threats include email scams and attachments that get them to install malware and disclose personal information. On Torrent sites, threats include malware hiding in video, music, and software downloads. Even when using a smartphone, threats include geo-location, meaning that one's phone can detect where they are and post it online for all to see.

  • Users can protect themselves by updating virus protection, using security settings, downloading patches, installing a firewall, screening email, shutting down spyware, controlling cookies, using encryption, fending off browser hijackers, and blocking pop-ups.


  • An HTTP cookies data stored on a user's computer that assists in automated access to websites or web features, or other information required in complex websites. It may also be used for user-tracking by storing special usage history data in a cookie, and such cookies—for example, those used by Google Analytics—are called tracking cookies. Cookies are a common concern in the field of Internet privacy. Although website developers most commonly used cookies are for legitimate technical purposes, cases of abuse may still occur.

  • Cookies do have benefits that many people may not know. One benefit is that, for some websites that one frequently visits that require a password, cookies make it possible in some way so they do not have to sign in every time. A cookie can also track one's preferences to show them websites that might interest them. Cookies make more websites free to use without any type of payment.

  • Some of these benefits are also seen as negative. For example, one of the most common ways of theft is hackers taking one's username and password that a cookie saves. While a lot of sites are free, they have to make a profit somehow so they sell their space to advertisers. These ads, which are personalized to one's likes, can often freeze one's computer or cause annoyance.

  • Cookies are mostly harmless except for third-party cookies. These cookies are not made by the website itself, but by web banner advertising companies. These third-party cookies are so dangerous because they take the same information that regular cookies do, such as browsing habits and frequently visited websites, but then they give out this information to other companies.

  • Cookies store unique identifiers on a person's computer that are used to predict what one wants. Many advertisement companies want to use this technology to track what their customers are looking at online.

Some habits which may create Privacy concerns nowadays are:-

  • Photographs on the Internet
  • Google Street View
  • Search engines
  • Social networking sites
  • Internet service providers
  • HTML5 which stores data on Web Cloud as well as in System itself
  • Big Data by Facebook, Google, Apple, Spotifyor GPS

Other potential Internet privacy risks

  • Malware is a term short for "malicious software" and is used to describe software to cause damage to a single computer, server, or computer network whether that is through the use of a virus, trojan horse, spyware, etc.

  • Spyware is a piece of software that obtains information from a user's computer without that user's consent.

  • A web bug is an object embedded into a web page or email and is usually invisible to the user of the website or reader of the email. It allows checking to see if a person has looked at a particular website or read a specific email message.

  • Phishing is a criminally fraudulent process of trying to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, credit card or bank information. Phishing is an internet crime in which someone masquerades as a trustworthy entity in some form of electronic communication.

  • Pharming is a hacker's attempt to redirect traffic from a legitimate website to a completely different internet address. Pharming can be conducted by changing the hosts' file on a victim’s computer or by exploiting a vulnerability on the DNS server.

  • Social engineering where people are manipulated or tricked into performing actions or divulging confidential information.

  • Malicious proxy server(or other "anonymity" services).

  • Use of weak passwords that are short, consist of all numbers, all lowercase or all uppercase letters, or that can be easily guessed such as single words, common phrases, a person's name, a pet's name, the name of a place, an address, a phone number, a social security number, or a birth date.

  • Using the same login name and/or password for multiple accounts where one compromised account leads to other accounts being compromised.

  • Allowing unused or little-used accounts, where unauthorized use is likely to go unnoticed, to remain active.

  • Using out-of-date software that may contain vulnerabilities that have been fixed in newer more up-to-date versions.

  • WebRTCis a protocol which suffers from a serious security flaw that compromises the privacy of VPN-tunnels, by allowing the true IP address of the user to be read. It is enabled by default in major browsers such as Firefox and Google Chrome.

  • Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid. While some simple ransomware may lock the system in a way which is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, the more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion, in which it encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them.

Some privacy protection measures which helps in controlling data breach and restricting retention of data over the internet without users’ consent are:-

  • Global privacy policies
  • Data protection regulation of such Country
  • Internet privacy in some Countries like China
  • The decision of European Court of Justice (ECJ)
  • Encryption and Added security features
Some Privacy focused search engines/browsers

  1. DuckDuckGo
  2. MetaGer
  3. Ixquick
  4. Yacy
  5. Search Encrypt
  6. Tor Browser (The Onion Router)

The Need for Encryption

While legislation catches up in different parts of the world and internet data has no boundary limit, billions of citizens are left without any means of data protection.

This has encouraged whistle-blowers like Edward Snowden to insist on better encryption and tighter protection of online data. Internet users are encouraged to take matters into their own hands and lock down all private information online. Tools such as end-to-end encryption and two-step verification can ensure data is online accessible by authorized individuals.

In an era of widespread surveillance and warrantless privacy breaches, encryption is more necessary than ever.


Meanwhile, governments have rolled out extensive surveillance operations and online privacy is still under threat from large corporations and rouge cybercriminals. Tight encryption and better online security measures seem to be the best option for individuals and businesses concerned about their data privacy.

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